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逗号的用法汇总集合

时间:2019-11-13 11:04:29本文内容及图片来源于读者投稿,如有侵权请联系[email protected] 美婷 我要投稿

  中文也有逗号啦,反正小编也常常会把他们两个弄混,不过这一次我有法宝,看下面,小编在这给大家带来逗号的用法汇总集合,欢迎大家借鉴参考!

  乱用标点或漏用标点,是同学们日常写作中常犯的错误。一方面是因为大家对标点不够重视,认为不就是一个“点”吗?有什么大不了。一方面也是因为没有专门学习过标点的用法。

  今天我们详细讲解下逗号的用法,希望大家对功能强大的逗号多一点了解,以后写作多一点真诚,少一点随意。

  废话不多说,先上一句看起来像被雷劈过的句子

  What we today call American folk art was, indeed, art of, by, and for ordinary, everyday 'folks' who, with increasing prosperity and leisure, created a market for art of all kinds, and especially for portraits.

  你内心的mmp我已经清楚地听到了。等我们把用法都讲过一遍,你就知道这里面的每一个逗号都有什么用,以及这句话到底什么意思。

  逗号的六种用法

  1. 分隔连续并列的各项

  3个或以上列举

  The street vendor sold watches, necklaces, bracelets, and earrings.

  The pitcher adjusted his cap, pawed the ground, and peered over his shoulder.

  The exercise instructor told us to inhale, exhale, and relax.

  2个并列列举用and就可以了,不用逗号

  Chen Speaks Mandarin and Cantonese.

  两个描述型的词(descriptive word)并列时,逗号的使用要根据语义。

  Joe peered into the hot, still-smoking engine. “热的”,“还在冒烟”的引擎

  如果并列的两个描述型词语之间加上and听起来很自然(natural),例如hot and still-smoking 既热又还在冒烟的,两者的并列很自然,就可以用and隔开。

  但是 Tony wore a pale green tuxedo. 这个句子里pale浅色和green绿色如果中间加“and”就听起来很不自然,所以就不要加逗号。

  The warm blankets comforted us as we heard the cold north wind blow through the pines. 这个句子里 "cold and north" “既冷又朝北的窗子”听起来就很奇怪,所以就不要用逗号隔开了。

  其实大家可以试着用“既...又..." 翻译试试,如果描述的维度接近,听着顺耳,就是可以用逗号隔开的。

  2.用于开头,引入一个独立分句(independent clause)

  : 独立分句就是能够独立存在的句子;与其对应的是从属句/从句,不能独立存在 如although… 或 When... 引导的都是从句,都不能单独存在。

  看几个例子

  Therefore, I plan to quit smoking.

  As a result, I feel terrible right now.

  Nervously, I threw away my cigarettes.

  Having smoked for 16 years, I find it difficult to quit.

  *Because I have a chronic cough, my doctor recommended that I quit immediately.

  *Although he had been first in the checkout line, Deion let an elderly woman go ahead of him.

  *When the meal was finished, Rachel washed up and made coffee.

  上面三句加*的句子是可以把主句和从句位置调换的,调换以后逗号可以省略(不会出现歧义)

  *My doctor recommended that I quit immediately because I have a chronic cough.

  *Deion let an elderly woman go ahead of him although he had been first in the checkout line.

  *Rachel washed up and made coffee when the meal was finished.

  : 如果开头部分很短,有时可省略 After the war many soldiers stayed in France. 不过仍然建议大家每次都用逗号,避免出错。

  3. 作插入语,提供一个非必要的信息

  ①The weather, windy and wild, created twenty-foot swells on the lake.

  ②Sue Dodd, who goes to aerobics class with me, was in a serious car accident.

  插入语的前后都要使用逗号,插入的内容只是额外补充(extra information),并不是必要信息。判断一个内容是不是一个句子里的必要信息,只需把该内容删掉以后,再看句意是否完整。

  比如上面这个句子,如果去掉who goes to aerobics class with me,就剩下

  Sue Dodd was in a serious car accident. 句子信息仍然是完整清晰的,说明插入的部分是非必要信息,一定要加逗号。

  但如果是下面这句:

  ③The woman who goes to aerobics class with me was in a serious car accident.

  如果去掉who goes to aerobics class with me,原句就剩

  The woman was in a serious car accident. 句意就不清楚不完整了 “到底是哪个女人出车祸了?” 因此这个信息是句中必要信息,不能使用双逗号作为插入语。

  大家应该已经发现②③就是平时常提到的非限定定语从句和限定性定语从句。

  “限定”就是必须要修饰的信息,一旦缺少该信息句意就不完整,如句③

  “非限定”就是没有限定作用,只补充非必要信息,删除也不影响句意完整,如句②

  我们再看两个非限定定语从句的例子

  Marty’s computer, which his wife got him as a birthday gift, occupies all his spare time. (去掉双逗号插入的部分,句子信息仍然完整清晰 Marty的电脑占据了他全部的业余时间)

  Hawaii, which became the fiftieth state in 1959, is made up of eight major islands. (去掉双逗号插入的部分,句子信息仍然完整清晰。夏威夷由八个岛屿组成。

  我们再对比下面两组句子:

  ①Watership Down, a novel by Richard Adams, is the most thrilling adventure story I’ve ever read.

  如果去掉 ,a novel by Richard Adams, 原句变成 Watership Down is the most thrilling adventure story I've ever read. Watership Down这本书是我读过的最激动人心的探险小说。 ---- 句子信息完整清晰。

  ②Richard Adam’s novel Watership Down is the most thrilling adventure story I’ve ever read.

  如果去掉书名 Watership Down 原句变成Richard Adam's novel is the most thrilling adventure story I’ve ever read. 句子信息就不清晰 "到底是Richard Adam的哪一本探险小说呢?” 所以这句话不是插入语,而是句子必要信息,不能用双逗号。可见插入语双逗号的使用并不是随随便便,是有严格用法的。

  4.连接两个独立句子

  能够连接两个独立句子的并列连词有七个: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (可记做FANBOYS)

  两个独立句子并列,使用逗号+连词

  Sam closed all the windows, but the predicted thunderstorm never arrived.

  I like wearing comfortable clothing, so I buy oversize shirts and sweaters.

  Peggy doesn’t envy the skinny models in magazines, for she is happy with her own well-rounded body.

  Kelly was a convicted criminal, yet many people admired him.

  如果单句都很短,可以省略逗号

  Many people left but the band played on. (句子短,逗号可省)

  I made a wrong turn so I doubled back. (句子短,逗号可省略)

  如果主语词只有一个词,动词却有两个,不要使用逗号

  The doctor stared over his bifocals and lectured me about smoking.

  (一个主语the doctor,两个动词 stared over和lectured,所以不用逗号)

  Dean switched the lamp on and off and then tapped it with his fingers.

  (一个主语Dean,两个动词 switched和tapped,所以不用逗号)

  特别提醒: 能够连接两个独立句子的并列连词只有FANBOYS 这七个,大家平时往往使用的是连接词(是副词), 不是连词,如however, later, therefore, consequently, on the other hand, as a result, thus, instead, even, then等等。

  最经典的错误长这样 Some of the food crops failed, however, the cotton did quite well.

  however不是连词,是副词,只是连接词,不能连接两个独立的句子。

  这句可以改为

  Some of the food crops failed. However, the cotton did quite well.

  也可以用正宗连词FANBOYS中的一个

  Some of the food crops failed, but the cotton did quite well.

  除了FANBOYS并列连词,还有一类很重要的连词 -- 主从连词,如when, where, while, unless, after, before, since, because, so that, although, if, until 等,它们不能连接两个独立的句子,但可以连接一个主句和一个从句,例如前面用的例句

  Because I have a chronic cough, my doctor recommended that I quit immediately. (Because引导的是原因状语从句,注意是从句,是不能独立存在的,后半句是可独立存在的主句)

  5.直接引语里的逗号

  使用直接引语时,要使用逗号隔开。

  The carnival barker cried, “Step right up and win a prize!”

  “Please remember to watch the gap,” the conductor warned.

  “I’m sorry,” said the restaurant hostess, “You’ll have to wait.”

  6. 用作结尾补充附加的逗号(tag comma)

  It is not logical, is it?

  I love you, too.

  I never liked long walks, especially in winter.

  PS. 其实还有第7种用法(例如书信里的"Dear John, "和“Sincerely yours, " 但这种用法只在特定文本里使用,且大家比较熟悉,就不再单独列出来讲解了)

  好了,逗号的用法讲完了,我们重看开篇这个变态的句子

  What we today call American folk art was, indeed, art of, by, and for ordinary, everyday 'folks' who, with increasing prosperity and leisure, created a market for art of all kinds, and especially for portraits.

  , indeed,

  , with increasing prosperity and leisure,

  这两个见用法3插入语

  of, by, and for

  见用法1第一条讲解 --三项并列列举

  ordinary, everyday

  见用法1第三条讲解--两个描述型词语并列,如果加”and“后听起来仍然顺耳(natural) 则可以加逗号

  , and especially for portraits.

  见用法6 -- 结尾附加信息

  这句话的中文意思是: 我们今天所说的美国民间艺术,确实,就是属于人民的、被人民创造的、为人民而创造的艺术,随着物质财富和闲暇时间的日益增加,这些普普通通平平凡凡的人们为所有艺术,特别是肖像艺术,开创了市场。

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